Ecological Zones in Mexico

Ecological zonification is based on various important criteria such as type of vegetation, climate and relevant biogeographical aspects. Each zone is a terrestrial unit described by a particular set of  vegetation related to climate and common biogeographical history. Based on these criteria, six principal ecological zones are recognized in Mexico:

1) Tropical Hot and Humid
2) Tropical Hot and Subhumid
3) Temperate Humid
4) Temperate Subhumid
5) Arid and Semiarid
6) Sea - Land Transition Zone

eco zones
The Arid -Semiarid Zone covers almost 50% of the territory; Temperate Subhumid Zone follows with 19.7% The third most important is the Tropical Subhumid Zone (17.5%), fourth the Tropical Humid zone (11%) and zones with least coverage are the Temperate Humid (1.1%) and Sea- Land Transition Zone (0.9%).
Eco Zone Area
(mil ha)
Dominant Vegetation No.of Flora species No. of Flora endemits
Tropical Humid 22 Tropical evergreen forests and savannas 5.000 250
Tropical Subhumid 40 Deciduous forests 6.000 2.400
Temperate Humid 1 Mixed forests 3.000 900
Temperate Subhumid 33 Pine- Oak and Mixed forests 7.000 4.900
Arid and Semiarid 99 Shrub and Grassland 6.000 3.600

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